Projected Vaccine Wastage by WHO

According to WHO report

Projected Vaccine Wastage

In practicing immunization, the number of vaccine doses used is always higher than the number of persons actually immunized. The excess number represents doses lost. They may include:

Doses discarded from opened vials after the immunization session, in accordance with multi-dose opened vial policy (MDVP) or otherwise;
Doses damaged in unopened vials for any other reasons: e.g. problems with the cold chain (VVM at discard point, frozen DTP, TT or HepB), expired vaccine batches, broken vials during transport and handling;
Doses diverted from the target population, i.e. booster doses or doses administered to populations outside the targeted group, etc.
The projected vaccine wastage rate represents the proportion of total doses lost among those used. Ideally, the estimation of vaccine needs using wastage rates, should be based on local and country experience, relevant to individual immunization programmes. However, if no such data exists locally or at national level, countries could use indicative wastage rates indicated below. In addition, the monitoring of vaccine wastage within these countries should be strengthened.

Note: Taking advantage of new vaccine management policies such as the application of new technologies (MDVP, VVM), increased awareness to reduce vaccine wastage, and the need to sustain efforts of new vaccine introduction in the context of GAVI, the indicative maximum wastage rates below could be used for the estimation of vaccine needs in the absence of local data:

5% for all single dose vials
- for lyophilized vaccines:

50% wastage rate for 10-20 dose vials
10% wastage rate for 2-6 dose vials
- for liquid vaccines:

25% wastage rate for 10-20 dose vials
10% wastage rate for 2-6 dose vials
Knowing the wastage rate helps determine the ‘wastage factor’, which is used in the calculation of forecasting vaccine needs. The wastage factor gives the number of doses to be forecasted for every dose in the immunization schedule.

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