Projected Vaccine Wastage by WHO

According to WHO report

Projected Vaccine Wastage

In practicing immunization, the number of vaccine doses used is always higher than the number of persons actually immunized. The excess number represents doses lost. They may include:

Doses discarded from opened vials after the immunization session, in accordance with multi-dose opened vial policy (MDVP) or otherwise;
Doses damaged in unopened vials for any other reasons: e.g. problems with the cold chain (VVM at discard point, frozen DTP, TT or HepB), expired vaccine batches, broken vials during transport and handling;
Doses diverted from the target population, i.e. booster doses or doses administered to populations outside the targeted group, etc.
The projected vaccine wastage rate represents the proportion of total doses lost among those used. Ideally, the estimation of vaccine needs using wastage rates, should be based on local and country experience, relevant to individual immunization programmes. However, if no such data exists locally or at national level, countries could use indicative wastage rates indicated below. In addition, the monitoring of vaccine wastage within these countries should be strengthened.

Note: Taking advantage of new vaccine management policies such as the application of new technologies (MDVP, VVM), increased awareness to reduce vaccine wastage, and the need to sustain efforts of new vaccine introduction in the context of GAVI, the indicative maximum wastage rates below could be used for the estimation of vaccine needs in the absence of local data:

5% for all single dose vials
- for lyophilized vaccines:

50% wastage rate for 10-20 dose vials
10% wastage rate for 2-6 dose vials
- for liquid vaccines:

25% wastage rate for 10-20 dose vials
10% wastage rate for 2-6 dose vials
Knowing the wastage rate helps determine the ‘wastage factor’, which is used in the calculation of forecasting vaccine needs. The wastage factor gives the number of doses to be forecasted for every dose in the immunization schedule.

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“Drug Makers’ Push into Injectables Could Ease Shortages” – Wall Street Journal, 26 March 2013

Healthcare and drug companies are looking to join a market largely held by hospitals: injectable drugs, a $7 billion industry that often experiences shortages.

Drug mogul Becton Dickinson (BD), for example, plans on introducing 20-30 new injectable medicines to the US over the next few years, some of which have been in short supply. International drug companies are also seizing the market. Jordan-based Hikma Pharmaceuticals will launch 5-10 products in the next few years, also introducing a few of which have been scarce.

Companies like BD are attracted to this market because of the supply issue; and while sterilizing injectable drugs can prove difficult, the payoff is big: almost one billion vials  are sold each year. However, companies might have to wait for the long-run, as producing sterile medicines can be expensive with low profits. Many companies left the market due to the cost, leaving some drugs to just one manufacturer. In addition, manufacturing problems, supply constraints and government investigation of manufacturing plants have pushed many drug firms to abandon facilities or slow down production.

What resulted was an even larger shortage in 2011: 183, as opposed to 23 five years earlier. According to the FDA, the shortages fell to 84 in 2012, partly because Pfizer began manufacturing limited cancer injectables and some plants, which were previously shut down, reopened.

Yet, in order to turn a profit, many companies are looking into raising prices by 10%. This would greatly affect hospitals and their drug buyers, who will most likely fight the increases. In order to cut costs and availability, drug companies should consider  producing and selling drugs in multi-dose vials. Fluid Management Systems, Inc. has the technology to manage and monitor injectable drug inventories in multi-dose vials.

Conceived, Developed and Written by Dr. Subodh Das and Tara Mahadevan

April 10, 2013

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Copyright 2013   All rights Reserved by Fluid Management Systems, Inc.

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“Dead Pigs Worry Shanghai” – Wall Street Journal, 12 March 2013

Earlier this month, 3,300 dead pigs were found dead in the Huangpu River, which supplies water to most of Shanghai’s 23 million residents. Chinese authorities have no idea how the pigs died.

Government officials investigated any impact the pigs would have on the river and other local waters, announcing that no health threat in the water existed. However, authorities found the pig-borne disease porcine circovirus in the river, which according to the US CDC, does not affect humans. China’s main meat is pork, which consists of almost half a billion pigs, and the country littered with swine farms that are rife with communicable diseases. An industry expert noted that the dead pigs might be indicative of a disease outbreak from a single farm.

China has had its fair share of pig illnesses. In 2007, around 50 million pigs died from an outbreak of high-fever blue ear disease; and this past January, 948 Chinese pigs had to be killed due to an outbreak of foot and mouth disease.

Additionally, Chinese waterways have been exposed to much pollution. Again this past January, a chemical transporter spewed benzene into a Huangpu River tributary, which caused 20 people to be hospitalized. Earlier this year, Rivers in three northern provinces were also affected due to a chemical spill.

The chemical spills, as well as the mass deaths, are also calling Chinese food safety, environmental and air quality regulations into question. In 2011, China claimed the number one spot as the world’s biggest carbon dioxide polluter, up by 10 percent to contribute 10 billion tons of carbon dioxide emissions to the world’s atmosphere. It is no wonder that China’s air quality caused its residents to become sick, and persuaded many to wear face masks.

In our view, the land where humans and animals live, the water we drink, and the air we breathe constitute environmental quality, and all eventually contribute towards human and animal health and safety. We live in an interconnected global ecosystem that we need to keep clean and safe. China — now the largest country in the world — continues to grow its economy in order to achieve a more western lifestyle, and population, which is currently at 1.3 billion people or one-seventh of the world’s population. China will have to strike a healthy balance between economic growth and environmental harmony that many western economies are already addressing.

See also:
Carbon Pollution up to 2 Million Pounds a Second
Conference to Examine Transformative Effect of Innovation on Human-Animal Health
Antimicrobial Use and Resistance — NIAA Symposium White Paper Released
Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Surround Big Swine Farms in China & US

Conceived, Developed and Written by Dr. Subodh Das and Tara Mahadevan

March 28, 2013

Fluid Management Systems

Copyright 2013   All rights Reserved by Fluid Management Systems, Inc.

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“Genetically Modified Crops Have Led To Pesticide Increase, Study Finds” – HuffPost, 1 October 2012

Genetically modified crop (GMC) technologies have forced farmers to use more hazardous pesticides to tackle weeds and insects. GMCs, which are meant to improve plant growth and help farmers resist pests that harm plants, are actually working in reverse: GMC technologies have spurred the development of “superweeds” and “hard-to-kill” insects.

According to a study by Washington State University research professor Charles Benbrook, from 1996 (when pesticides were first introduced) to 2011, GMC use increased pesticide use by 404 million pounds. Also from 1996-2011, herbicide use increased by 527 million pounds and insecticide use increased by 123 million pounds.

In 1996, Monsanto introduced the first GMCs, herbicide-tolerant crops called “Roundup Ready” soybeans, crops that are engineered to endure Monsanto’s herbicide. Monsanto soon used the same technology for corn and cotton.

As of recent, dozens of Roundup-resistant weed species have developed, driving farmers to use more pesticides and chemicals to control these ‘super-weeds’. In the same vein, genetically modified corn and cotton, which are supposed to be poisonous for particular insects, has prompted the growth of ‘hard-to-kill’ insects.

GMCs largely control the US agricultural landscape: an estimated one of every two acres of harvested land has GMCs; and almost 95% of soybean and cotton acres, and over 85% of corn acres, are genetically modified.

The use of GMCs has the same pluses and minuses as the use of drugs for raising food  animals such as swines and bovines. We need to use antibiotics and antibacterials to protect animal health so that we can provide concentrated meat to feed 7 billion people. Excess use of these medications may lead to more resistance in humans.

Judging from the conflicting viewpoints of consumers who want safer and cheaper food, and regulators who want to protect public health, what can farmers do to satisfy consumers and regulators, while also guarding against rising costs? Perhaps there is a solution in better communication between crop and food scientists, farmers, GMC, and pesticide manufacturers and regulators.

Conceived, Developed and Written by Dr. Subodh Das and Tara Mahadevan

January 24, 2013

Fluid Management Systems

Copyright 2013   All rights Reserved by Fluid Management Systems, Inc.

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